- President of the Republic (2007 – 2012)
- Prime Minister, Minister of Defence (2006-2007)
- Senior Minister, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation (2002-2006)
- Cabinet Member, United Nations Transition Administration for East Timor – UNTAET (2000-2002)
- Minister for Foreign Affairs and Information, in the first Govt proclaimed in December 1975 following Timor-Leste’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence, and Representative, Spokesperson, for the Resistance (1975-1999).
- Chair, High Level Independent Panel on UN Peace Operations, to review UN peace and security mechanisms (November 2014 – )
- Co-Chair, Internstional Commission on Multilateralism (UN Reform)
- Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General and Head of the UN Integrated Peace Building Mission in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa). (Jan 2013- June 2014)
- Member, Council of State, an Advisory Body to the President of the Republic
- Vice-President, Asian Peace and Reconciliation Council (APRC), since September 2012. APRC, with Secretariat in Bangkok, comprises leaders from Asia working on second track diplomacy and mediation.